Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through Ladakh towards the Gilgit-Baltistan region Hindukush ranges, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. The Sarasvati River is mentioned in all books of the Rigveda except the fourth. V.N. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers have changed their courses several times.[24]. The Ghaggar rises in the Siwalik (Shiwalik) Range, in northwestern Himachal Pradesh state and flows about 200 miles (320 km) southwest through Haryana state, where it receives the Saraswati River. For the purpose of irrigation, Hisar district has been classified into 5 circles, namely barani (low rain area where rain-fed dry farming is practiced which nowadays are dependent on tubewells for the irrigation), bagar (dry sandy tract of land on the border of Rajasthan state adjoining the states of Haryana and Pujab) nahri (canal-irrigated land), nali or naili (fertile prairie tract between the Ghaggar river and the southern limits of the Saraswati channel depression in northern Hissar district of Haryana that gets flooded during the rains), and Rangoi tract (an area irrigated by the Rangoi canal made for the purpose of carrying flood waters of Ghagghar river to dry areas). in the enumeration of the rivers in Rigveda 10.75.05 - the order is Ganges, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutudri Sutlej), Parusni, etc.

Several modern scholars identify the old Ghaggar-Hakra river with the Vedic Sarasvati river and the Chautang with the Drishadvati river. [10], The wide river bed (paleo-channel) of the Ghaggar river suggests that the river once flowed full of water during the great meltdown of the Himalayan Ice Age glaciers, some 10,000 years ago, and that it then continued through the entire region, in the presently dry channel of the Hakra River, possibly emptying into the Rann of Kutch. The river rises in the Himalayas in central Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows for some 470 km to the Sutlej River in the Indian state of Punjab. Wikipedia, One of the longest rivers in Asia. The abandonment of many sites on the Ghaggar-Hakra between the Harappan and the Late Harappan phase was probably due to the drying up of the Ghaggar-Hakra river. Misra has noted that in the Indus Valley and the valleys of its main tributaries 50 Early and Mature IVC sites were found. The Indus Valley Civilisation went into decline around the year 1700 BC for reasons that are not entirely known, though its downfall was probably precipitated by an earthquake or natural event that dried up the Ghaggar River. [54], According to proto-historian Michel Danino, in ancient times a mature river flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and into the Rann of Kutch, which he identifies as the Rig Vedic Sarasvati river. The Sarasvati by this time had become a mythical "disappeared" river, and the name was transferred to the Ghaggar which disappeared in the desert. Wikipedia, Tributary of Ghaggar river, flowing through Sirmaur District, Ambala district and Shahabad Markanda town in Kurukshetra district. Since the late 19th-century, scholars have identified the Vedic Saraswati river as the Ghaggar-Hakra River system, which flows through northwestern India and eastern Pakistan, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej. The Kaushalya Dam (Hindi: कौशल्या बांध) is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Kaushalya river, which is a tributary of Ghaggar-Hakra River[1] (modern remnant of ancient Sarasvati river), in Pinjore of Haryana state, India. Wikipedia, Northwestern Nevada river that empties into the Carson Sink, an endorheic basin.

Kaushalya barrage and resulting upstream dam on Kaushalya river are located 21 km from Chandigarh,[3] 12 km from Panchkula city and Khol Hi-Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary near Panchkula,[4] 5 km from Pinjore city,[5] and 13 km from Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary near Pinjore.

Confirmed by use of MSS (multi-spectral scanner) and Landsat satellite photography.

Formed by the joining of two streams of headwaters, the Kalapani River descending from the western border of the Lipulekh Pass, and the Kuthi Yankti river descending from the Limpiyadhura range.

The Hakra is the dried-out channel of a river near Fort Abbas City in Pakistan that is the continuation of the Ghaggar River in India. Khadir is also called Nali or Naili, specially in northern Haryana the fertile prairie tract between the Ghaggar river and the southern limits of the Saraswati channel depression in that gets flooded during the rains. In the 19th and early 20th century a number of scholars, archaeologists and geologists have identified the Vedic Sarasvati River with the Ghaggar-Hakra River, such as Christian Lassen (1800-1876), Max Müller (1823-1900), Marc Aurel Stein (1862-1943), C.F. West Flowing Rivers of The Peninsular India The west flowing rivers of the Peninsular India are fewer and smaller as compared to their east flowing counterparts.

Wikipedia, Seasonally intermittent river in Chad. [69][70] Late Holocene aridification subsequently reduced the Ghaggar-Hakra to the seasonal river it is today. Another reference to the Sarasvati is in the geographical enumeration of the rivers in the late Rigvedic Nadistuti sukta (10.75.5, this verse enumerates all important rivers from the Ganges in the east up to the Indus in the west in a strict geographical order), as "Ganges, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Shutudri", the Sarasvati is placed between the Yamuna and the Sutlej, consistent with the Ghaggar identification.

The Sutlej moved westward and became a tributary of the Indus River while the Yamuna moved eastward and became a tributary of the Ganges.

Recent research indicates that the Sutlej and possibly also the Yamuna once flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra river bed.

[13] According to M. R. Mughal, this happened at the latest in 1900 BCE, but other scholars state that it took place much earlier [14][15], Puri and Verma (1998) have argued that the present-day Tons River was the ancient upper-part of the Sarasvati River, which would then had been fed with Himalayan glaciers.