Gluzman, M. (2005). Judaism: A Quarterly Journal of Jewish Life and Thought 45: 311-23.

It is well known that already in 1898 Max Nordau spoke about the “Jewish problem” as an acute question that demanded a radical solution (see Nordau, 1941). In H. Wirth-Nesher (Ed.) His prose is filled with urban spaces of alienation and isolation, and his literary characters include detached immigrants and relatives from Europe wandering in the workers’ community in Tel Aviv. He immigrated to Paris in the 1950s, returned to Israel in the 1960s, participated in the subsequent wars and engaged privately in negotiations with Palestinians. And that is what Israel ultimately means: God’s people. Letters from Europe arrive also in Yehudith Hendel’s work. In S. Friedlander (Ed. Her first collection of stories, They are Different People (1950), correlates between the War of 1948, mourning and bereavement and the arrival and displacement of the Holocaust survivors in the Land of Israel. Hebrew at that time was the language of holy scripture, the Torah and the language of prayer. Booking Passage: Exile and Homecoming in the Modern Jewish Imagination.

(2003). In his talk, Bialik warns against the dismantling of the sacred content of Hebrew by the “New Hebrew.” Not only does Bialik hint at the tension between Jewish tradition and secularism in the process of national revival, but he also raises the question of what the national Jewish language should be. Reading Amichai Reading. Bialik was in favor. In the Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel, David Ben-Gurion emphasized the inevitable connection between the “Jewish problem” and the necessity of a sovereign land, a homeland in Eretz Israel: “The catastrophe which recently befell the Jewish people—the massacre of millions of Jews in Europe—was another clear demonstration of the urgency of solving the problem of its homelessness by re-establishing in Eretz-Israel the Jewish State” (Quoted in Artmitage, 2007, p. 238). NY: New York University Press.

The poem “Hovering at a Low Altitude” presents a female narrator who announces how she watches an aggressive act of violation from a safe distance. Hebrew Studies: A Journal Devoted to Hebrew Language and Literature. Their works expose collective and national issues, generational struggles reflected in Oedipal narratives and a partial merging of the limits between self and others, Israelis and their enemies. The novels thus become a medium of performance, role experimentation and self-reflection through which the tensions of identity and the paradoxes, hybridizations and dialectics of being an Israeli are explored. The figure of Diaspora haunts also the protagonist of Nurith Gertz’s biographical fiction Unrepentant (2008).

Berkeley: University of California Press. Their rise from the dead is given a name and meaning in the symbolic form of a nation—the State of Israel.

B. Yehoshua’s Facing the Forests (1963). In the NT, and especially in the theology of Paul, we learn that in every generation there is a spiritual subset of the wider Israel—a saved remnant in which the fullness of God's promises to Israel are realized.

Ezrahi, S. D. (2000). It took more than a decade until dealing with the trauma, the destruction and the suffering, the terror and the death, was no longer a minor phenomenon in the Israeli cultural and public sphere. The prose of the 1990s was apparently indifferent to the political agenda in Israel.

This dialectic is also explored and imprinted in the innovative language of Orly Castel-Bloom. Shapira, A. Later, he joined the Lehi underground and fought in the IDF during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Not the Crusades, but rather the remnants of an Arab village are revealed after the trees from the forest which covered them go up in flames. In exploring the problem of representing this historical event, the author subverts traditional modes of speech and description by merging genres (apprenticeship novel, encyclopedia, biography) and the realms of testimony and fiction, documentation and fantasy. Its protagonist, who was brought as a child to pre-state Israel from Teheran during World War II, while his parents were left behind, tries to detach himself from his exilic identity by becoming an Israeli “Sabra”, but is haunted by shadows of the past. A plural of majesty, the term Elohim—though sometimes used for other deities, such as the Moabite god Chemosh, the Sidonian goddess Astarte, and also for other majestic beings such as angels, kings, judges (the Old Testament s Associated with the crucial moment of the establishment of the State of Israel and its formative role, the roots of this literature, as mentioned above, can be traced back to Europe and the complexities of Diaspora and homeland, shedding light on myths of rebirth and processes of national self-identification and giving secular form to religious experience and theological vision. The primary thread throughout the Bible is the redemption of humanity, and Israel is at the center of that story. Max Nordau to His People: A Summons and a Challenge. Zerubavel, Y. Representations 45: 72-100. Yeshurun’s poetry is written in Hebrew but it also incorporates fragments of Yiddish, Polish, Arabic and English into a hybrid tongue and unstable textures of language that reveal the unsolved tensions of cultural and political traditions, identity and territory. Born in Bratislava and arriving in pre-state Israel in 1941, his poetry hovers between his home town in Europe and the Israeli kibbutz, between European landscapes and the sites of the new land and between Hebrew and German – his mother’s language. Bloomington: Indiana UP. One well-accepted view of this tension explains that these writings were a symptom of the fractures in the national consensus that dominated the Zionist narrative (one that excluded minorities and rejected diversity in favor of hegemonic themes and a coherent, homogeneous language) as a consequence of the collective trauma following the War of 1973, the radical change in the political map of Israel in 1977 and the War of 1982 (e.g., Hever, 2002; Shaked, 2006). Yeshurun translates the destruction into a poetics of ruin.

The emergence of a new generation of writers born in pre-state Israel, natives raised in a Hebrew environment (the official language of the Yishuv), who participated in the War of 1948 and were later involved in political life, showed this strong linkage between the collective ethos and the literary creation. In his novel, Breakdown and Bereavement (1914), Brenner interweaves political, sexual and pathological discourses that are represented and engraved in distorted bodies; those that seek redemption in the Land of Israel. In the Old Testament, Israel (who was formerly named Jacob; see Genesis 32:28) wrestles with an angel.The ancient and modern states of Israel took their names from him. The Hebrew literature written in Israel is part of an ongoing project that began in the wake of the European Enlightenment when Jewish writers began to write in Hebrew in addition to their various national languages. Miron, D. (1994). Yet the promised correction through the reshaping of the “new” appears to be no less destructive. Near Quiet Places, a non-fiction collection of five radio conversations about her visit to Poland, was published in 1987.