This diagrams illustrates all the important parts in the construction of a shell & tube heat exchanger, as per the TEMA standards. Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Using Cooling Water 1. For further details you can refer to the relevant TEMA guidelines.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'enggcyclopedia_com-box-4','ezslot_1',108,'0','0'])); The exchanger shown in this diagram is a floating head type shell & tube exchanger. Fig 14 indicates support of horizontal exchangers is by saddles attached to concrete piers. A segment, called the baffle cut, is cut away to permit the fluid to flow parallel The Shell-and-tube Two tubesheets are required except for U-tube bundles. The main application of heat exchangers is to maintain the heat balance by addition or removal by exchange between streams of different operating temperatures.
Advertise directly with us. The most common heat exchangers used in process plants are : The above types are identified in figure 1. Stacking of exchangers above this height may require platforming for access to channel and bonnet flanges and fixed handling devices.
Figure 4 illustrates the plate exchanger configuration.
TEMA (Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association), floating head type shell & tube exchanger, This post explains the guidelines for creating a detailed P&ID, Typical PFD Instrument Air Dryer and Filter System, Sample Problem – Heat Transfer by Conduction across a composite wall, Gas turbines inlet air cooling technologies, Equipment Installation – Guidelines for lifting, Stationary head flange - channel or bonnet. The
As indicated in Figure 7, the double pipe exchanger consists of a pipe within a pipe ; both pipes have a return bend at one end.
Heat Exchanger pictures ( but 1000 mm minimum.) Fig. Design pressures range from full vacuum to 6,000 psi. Piping attached to cover plate nozzles of the spiral units is furnished with break flanges.
The Piping attached to cover plate nozzles of the spiral units is furnished with break flanges.
Figures 22 to 29 indicates various piping configurations for heat exchangers. This increases the turbulence of shell-side fluid and improves heat transfer. Different types of heat transfer equipment is widely used in the process industry to heat up or cool down process fluids. A shell & tube heat exchanger (STHE) is divided into three parts: Following table from the TEMA standards explains the different possible configurations for each of the 3 broad parts. Spiral & plate exchnagers can operate in series or parallel , but because of their configuration and maintenance requirements, it is preferable to position them as single items. Exchangers are provided in various combinations eg. Diagram of U-Tube Heat Exchanger Alternative approaches involve the design of a U-tube bundle so that each tube can inpendently expand and contract as needed or by using a rear floating internal tube sheet design which allows the entire bundle as a unit to expand and contract. Piping at spiral and plate exchangers is also positioned to allow the opening of covers and the removal of plates.
Horizontal shell & tube exchangers may be located at grade or elevated in steel or concrete structures when process requirements or space availability dictate. Piping is elevated similar to shell & tube exchanger. tube; 2) maintain the tube spacing; and 3) direct the flow of fluid in the desired pattern through the shell side. Piping connected to channel head nozzles should be furnished with break flanges to facilitate the removal of channel head. The tube bundle is then ready to be removed. Space should be provided on either side of paired exchangers and at both end s of grouped exchangers for control & operator access. GBH Enterprises, Ltd. shell and tube heat exchanger diagram. The diagram itself is based on the TEMA standards. baffle, EM baffle and ROD baffle. 21) are especially helpful in reducing the height of large stacked exchangers. Tube bundles and head and shell covers can be removed by built in fixed handling devices (davits, pulling posts), fixed structures with trolley beams, or by mobile equipment (eg. Considerations From Piping Point Of View, 6. In a centrifugal compressor, the gas typically enters the impeller axially and is discharged radially.
4. The internals of heat exchangers requires periodic cleaning and repair. This is indicated in figure 9. Baffles serve three functions: 1) support the It is important that exchangers are positioned in a such a way as to facilitate access to their internal parts. 18. The baffles provide the support to tubes and also deflect the fluid flow approximately normal to tubes. Horizontal exchangers may be stacked to a preferred maximum top shell centerline of 3600 mm from grade or platform as indicated in fig.13. Figure 8 depicts a typical plot plan with several heat exchanger applications.
Another important diagram from the TEMA standards is actually a table that helps us classifying different types of shell and tube exchangers and correctly identifying their nomenclature.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'enggcyclopedia_com-banner-1','ezslot_6',107,'0','0'])); TEMA standards describe these various components in detail. Control at the spiral exchanger are located on the ends of the unit, clear of the cover plate swing area , and at the front and on one side for the plate exchanger.
Typically instrument air dryer and filter systems consist of two parallel vessels with instrument air drying beds. There can be many variations on the shell and tube design. Before maintenance, the 25 mm gap will be shimmed, thereby enabling the reboiler load to be carried by the platform steel during maintenance turnaround. Pass partitions are Piping connected to channel head nozzles should be furnished with break flanges to facilitate the removal of channel head. Typical Elbow nozzles (see fig. Where this slope will prevent the tubes draining by gravity consideration must be given to the means of removing any liquids. Plate exchangers are generally used in low pressure, low temperature applications and are made up of end covers, carrying bars, inlet & outlet nozzles, plates & gaskets. Typically, the ends of each tube are connected to plenums (sometimes called water boxes) through holes in tubesheets. So typically we have a fluid on shell side and anther fluid on the tube side.
Horizontal shell & tube exchangers should be positioned so that the channel end faces the auxiliary road or maintenance access way for tube bundle removal with adequate space provided at the front end of the exchanger for bonnet removal. Although the piping designer does not have the freedom to independently relocate the exchanger nozzles , suggested alternate nozzle locations can be made to the exchanger engineer in the interest of improving piping arrangements , for example, alternative B is fig. Apart from the internal structure, another important diagram for heat exchanger design, is the piping & instrumentation diagram or P&ID for heat exchanger.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'enggcyclopedia_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_7',109,'0','0'])); Following diagram is a typical P&ID arrangement for a shell & tube heat exchanger. Figure 3 shows U tube, fixed tube and kettle arrangement.
Consideration From Equipment Layout Of View, 5.
5. If the design of the exchangers permits, the tube bundle can also be removed for repair & cleaning. The heat exchangers are widely used in most process plants. Considerations From Piping Point Of View
The free space at the side of horizontal shells can be used for placement of controls.